WILLOWS (Salix spp.) - Shrubs or trees that favor wetlands and moist soils along streambanks. Known for their rapid growth, willows function as excellent streambank stabilizers and windbreaks. Willows provide cover and summer shade for fish, waterfowl, gamebirds, and songbirds and plentiful and prolific food source for beaver, small mammals, deer, elk, and moose. Streambank willows host numerous insects, which may ultimately become food for fish.
WILLOW, BEBB (Salix bebbiana) SABE - Most commonly a large shrub 15 to 18 feet tall but can reach heights of 29 feet. Mature leaves are shorter and rounder than most willow species. Usually found in moist soils near the upland border of the riparian zone. Can grow in a wide range of soil textures from heavily organic to gravelly.
WILLOW, BOOTH (Salix boothii) SABO - Multi stemmed shrub to 20 ft. Smooth leaves (without hair) and equally green on top and bottom. Often found with Drummond and Geyer willow (below) in fine textured soils but away from stream banks.
WILLOW, DRUMMOND (Salix drummondiana) SADR - Shrub that grows 6 to 12 feet in height. Distinctive long, oval shaped leaves with mat of silver colored hairs underneath and velvet to the touch. Typically thrives in moist, heavy soils at the water's edge of streambanks. Tolerates abrasion and browsing.
WILLOW, GEYER (Salix geyeriana) SAGE - Shrub found in a wide range of elevations. Grows 8 to 12 feet in height. Typically occupies low-gradient riparian zones, or low wetland areas, away from stream flow.
WILLOW, GOLDEN (Salix alba var. vitellina) SAAL - Introduced, upright tree that grows to 80 feet. Thrives in wet or moist places especially along streams or near bodies of water. Colorful slender yellow branches.
WILLOW, LEMMONS (Salix lemmonii) SALE - Shrub growing to 8 to 12 feet. Typically occupies low-gradient riparian zones, or low wetland areas, preferring well drained gravelly soils away from stream flow.
WILLOW, MACKENZIE (Salix rigida var. mackenzieana) SARI - Shrub or small tree that grows to 20 feet in height. Twigs reddish-brown to yellowish. Long, yellowish-green leaves of intermediate width.
WILLOW, PACIFIC (Salix lasiandra) SALA - Shrub or multi-stemmed tree found in a wide range of elevations. Grows 10 to 30 feet in height. More shrubby with increased elevation. Shiny, dark green leaves. Thrives in wet to moist, sandy- or gravelly-textured soils near stream edges or the high-water line.
WILLOW, PEACH-LEAF (Salix amygdaloides) SAAM - Tree that grows to 40 feet. Moderately drooping, red-brown twigs. Found along streambanks of plains and foothills. Common on the Clearwater and Snake R.
WILLOW, SANDBAR (Salix exigua ssp. melanopsis) SAEXm - Shrub that grows up to 12 feet tall. Colonizes sand and gravel bars below the high-water line and sandy or gravelly soils at stream's edge. Spreads underground forming thickets many yards in diameter. Twigs red. Mature leaves narrow, green, but wider than ssp. exigua (below) and conspicuously toothed.
WILLOW, COYOTE (Salix exigua ssp. exigua) SAEXex - Shrub that can grow up to 25 feet tall. Occupies habitats similar to ssp. melanopsis (above) as well as moist, well-drained bottomlands and benches. Mature leaves very narrow and long, silvery or grayish-green, usually without teeth.
WILLOW, SCOULER (Salix scouleriana) SASC - Fast growing, tall shrub or small tree that grows 7 to 30 feet in height. Mature leaves are dark green, round and wide at the tip. Found in a wide range of elevations in both riparian and drier sites. Common near mountain springs. Popular browse species of deer and elk.
WILLOW, SITKA (Salix sitchensis) SASI - Shrub that grows to 20 feet. Mature leaves not toothed, blue-green in color, shiny and velvety underneath. Twigs are whitish in color, with or without hairs. Similar to spp. drummondiana, but grows in more drained soil.